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general knowledge 2023 arihant | Indian History | Ancient India | Jainism and Buddhism

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general knowledge 2023 arihant | Indian History | Ancient India | Jainism and Buddhism




  •  Came into existence around 600 BC.
  • The main causes being the reaction against domination of Brahmanas and spread of agricultural economy in the North-East.


  • Founded by Rishabhadeva (Emblem: Bull) born in Ayodhya.
  •  There were 24 tirthankaras (great teachers), the 23rd being Parshvanatha and the 24th being the Vardhamana Mahavira.
  • Mahavira was born in 540 BC in Kundagram near Vaishali.
  • Father Siddhartha of Jnatrik Kshatriya Clan.
  • Mother Trishala-sister of Lichchhavi Chief Chetaka, married to Yashoda and had a daughter named Priyadarshini, whose husband Jamali became his first disciple. Mahavira became an ascetic at the age of 30, attained Kaivalya (Jina) outside the town of Jimbhikgrama at the age of 42 and died at the age of 72 in 468 BC in Pavapuri.
  • Five Doctrines of Jainism
  1. Do not commit violence (Ahimsa)
  2. Do not steal (Asteya)
  3. Do not acquire property (Aparigraha)
  4. Do not speak lie (Satya)
  5. Observe continence (Brahmacharya)
  • Triratnas of Jainism are right knowledge, right faith and right conduct.
  • Jainism says salvation is possible only by abandoning all possessions, a long course of fasting, self mortification, study and meditation.
  • Jainism recognised existence of God, but lower than Jina. didn't condemn varna system unlike Buddhism.
  • Jainism could not delink clearly from brahmanical religion, hence failed to attract masses; admitted both men and women. Jain monastic establishments were called basadis.
  • Jainism was patronised by Kharavela-the king of Kalinga; Chandragupta Maurya became the disciple of Bhadrabahu and spread Jainism in the South.
  • Jainism was divided into two sects during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya, mainly due to famine in Magadha named. Svetambaras (wearing white dresses) under Sthul bhadra and Digambaras (naked under Bhadrabahu.
  • Jaina texts were written in Prakrit language.

First Council (300 BC) At Pataliputra Under Sthulbhadra (Pataliputra) Jaina Canons compiled.
Second Council At Vallabhi (AD 5th Century). Under Kshamasramana (Vallabhi) 12 Angas and 12 Upangas were compiled in Ardh Magadhi language


Founded by Gautama Buddha, also known as Siddhartha or Sakyamuni or Tathagata.
  • Born in 563 BC in Lumbini in Nepal in Shakya Kshatriya Clan.
  • His father Suddhodana was a Shakya ruler and his mother Mahamaya of Kosalan dynasty died early. Brought up by step mother Gautami.
  • Married to Yashodhara and had a son Rahul.
  • Triratnas in Buddhism stand for 3 pillars
  1. Buddha Its founder
  2. Dhamma His teachings
  3. Sangha Order of Buddhist monks and nuns
Buddhism was also divided in two main sects namely Hinayana and Mahayana.

Phases of Buddha's Life Symbols
Birth Lotus and Bull
Mahabhinishkraman (Renunciation) Horse
Nirvana (Enlightenment) Bodhi Tree
Dharmachakra Pravartana (First Sermon) Wheel
Mahaparinirvana (Death) Stupa

The Dhamma

The Four Great Truths
  • The world is full of sorrow and misery.
  • The cause of all pain and misery is desire.
  • Pain and misery can be ended by killing or controlling desire.
  • Desire can be controlled by following the Eight-Fold Path.
The Eight-Fold Path
  1. Right Understanding
  2. Right Thought
  3.  Right Action
  4. Right Livelihood
  5.  Right Efforts
  6. Right Speech
  7. Right Mindfullness
  8. Right Concentration

Madhya Marga (The Middle Path)

Man should avoid both extremes, i.e. life of comforts and luxury and a life of severe asceticism.

Buddhist Literature

In Pali language commonly referred to as Tripitakas, i.e., 'three fold basket". 

Vinaya Pitaka

Rules of discipline in Buddhist monasteries.

Sutta Pitaka

It contains collection of Buddha's sermons and teachings. It is largest among all three pitakas.

Abhidhamma Pitaka

Explanation of the philosophical principles of the Buddhist religion. Mahavamsha and Dipavamsa are the other Buddhist texts of Sri Lanka.

Causes of Decline of Buddhism

Use of Sanskrit, the language of intellectuals, in place of Pali, the language of the common people. Revival of Hinduism.

Buddhist Councils

Buddhist Councils Period Place Chairman Patron
First 483 BC Rajagriha Mahakashyapa Ajatashatru
Second 383 BC Vaishali Sabakami Kalashoka
Third 250 BC Patliputra Mogaliputta Tissa Ashoka
Fourth AD 72 Kundalvana Mogaliputta Tissa Kanishka

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