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general knowledge 2023 arihant | Indian History | Medieval India

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general knowledge 2023 arihant | Indian History | Medieval India



  • Mohammad bin Qasim invaded India in AD 712 and conquered Sindh.
  • Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni led about 17 expeditions of India.
  • In 1025, he attacked and raided the most celebrated Hindu temple of Somnath, situated on the sea coast of Kathiawar.


  • Mohammad Ghori invaded India and was defeated by Prithviraj Chauhan in First Battle of Tarain (1191).
  • Ghori defeated the Rajput king in Second Battle of Tarain (1192) and laid the foundation of the Muslim dominion in India. He may be considered the 'founder of Muslim rule' in India.

Ilbari Dynasty (AD 1206-1290)


  • Capital Lahore (initial); Delhi (later)
  • The founder of the Slave dynasty. Also called Lakh Baksh because of his generosity.
  • Qutub-ud-din Aibak laid the foundation of Qutub Minar, after the name of the famous Sufi saint Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki; built Quwwat-ul-Islam (first mosque in India) and Adhai Din ka Jhopra (Ajmer).
  • Died while playing Chaugan (polo) at Lahore.

Iltutmish (AD 1210-1236)

  • Attack of Mongols; formed Turkan-e-Chahalgani or Chalisa (a group of 40 powerful Turkish nobles).
  • Divided his empire into Iqtas (assignment of land in lieu of salary). 
  • Introduced 2 types of coins-silver tanka and copper jital.

  • His court poets were Amir Khusrau and Mir Hassan Dehlvi.
  • Tughlaq Dynasty (AD 1320-1413)

    • Founded by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, who built the fortified city of Tughlaqabad and made it his capital.
    • He was the first sultan to start irrigation works.
    • Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq also called the wise fool king on account of five experiments, namely (a) Transfer of capital to Daulatabad (b) Taxation in Doab (c) Qarachil expedition (d) Khurasan expedition (e) Token currency.
    • The Sultan set-up a separate department for agriculture, Diwan-i-kohi. He gave Sondhar loans to farmers.
    • South Indian states of the Vijayanagara empire, the Bahmani kingdom and the Sultanate of Madura were founded.
    • The famous traveller of Morocco, Ibn-Batuta visited his court.
    • Firoz Shah Tughlaq built new towns of Hissar, Firozpur, Fatehabad, Jaunpur and Firozabad (his capital). During his reign two Ashokan pillars, one from Topara in Ambala and the other from Meerut were brought. Built canals was fond of slaves and wrote a book Fatuhat-e-Firozshahi.
    • He repaired. Qutub Minar when it was struck by lightening.
    • Firoz Shah Tughlaq also made Iqtadari system hereditary and imposed new taxes like Kharaj (land tax equal to one-tenth of the producer) and Zakat and Khams (one-tenth of the booty captured in war).
    • He made Jizya a separate tax and he imposed this tax upon the Brahmans for the first time in the history of Sultanate.
    • He introduced the following coinsAadha, Bhikh, Shashgani and Hasthragani.
    • Timur Mongol leader of Central Asia, ordered general massacre in Delhi (AD 1398) at the time of Nasiruddin Mahmud (last Tughlaq king).

    Sayyids and Lodhis

    • Sayyids dynasty as founded by Kizr Khan : Successors-Mubarak Shah, Muhammad Shah and Alauddin Alam Shah.
    • The Lodhis were the first Afghans to rule India.
    • Bahlol Lodhi (AD 1451-1481) founded the dynasy.
    • Sikander Lodhi (AD 1418-1517) introduced Gaz-i-Sikandari. (Unit for measuring cultivated field). He founded Agra in 1504. He wrote the Persian verse 'Gulrukhi'.
    • He was succeeded by Ibrahim Lodhi (1517-1526), who was defeated by Rana Sanga of Mewar in the Battle of Khatoli. Ibrahim Lodhi was also defeated by Babur in April, 1526 which led to the establishment o the Mughal rule in India.

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