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general knowledge 2023 arihant | Indian History | Medieval India | Mughal Empire

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general knowledge 2023 arihant | Indian History | Medieval India | Mughal Empire




INDIAN HISTORY


MEDIEVAL INDIA


Mughal Empire



Mughal Empire (AD 1526-1707)

Babur (AD 1526-1530)

  • Founder of Mughal empire, who in India; introduced gunpowder defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the First Battle of Panipat (AD 1526); Rana Sanga (Sangram Singh) at Battle of Khanwa (AD 1527); Medini Rai of Chanderi at Battle of Chanderi (AD 1528) and Mahmud Lodi at Battle of Ghagra (AD 1529); he wrote Tuzuk-i-Baburi in Turkish language.
  • Babur declared Jehad and adopted the title Ghazi.
  • Died in 1530 and was buried at Aram Bagh (Agra). Later his body was taken to Bagh-e Babun (Kabul).

Humayun (AD 1530-1556)

  • Built Dinpanah at Delhi as his second capital.
  • Sher Shah Suri gradually gained power. He fought two battles with Humayun-Battle of Chausa (AD 1539) and another Battle of Kannauj (AD 1540) culminating into Humayun's defeat.
  • Humayun passed 15 years in exile; again invaded India in 1555 with the help of his officer Bairam Khan.
  • Died in AD 1556 due to a fall from his library building's stairs; Gulbadan Begum. Humayun's half-sister wrote Humayun-nama.

Akbar (AD 1556-1605)

  • Coronated at the young age of 14 by Bairam Khan; defeated Hemu at the Second Battle of Panipat (AD 1556) with the help of Bairam Khan; conquered Malwa (AD 1561) defeating Baz Bahadur followed by Garh-Katanga (ruled by Rani Durgawati), Chittor (AD 1568), Ranthambhor and Kalinjar (AD 1569), Gujarat (AD 1572), Mewar (Battle of Haldighati, AD 1576 Akbar and Rana Pratap), Kashmir (AD 1586), Sindh (AD 1593) and Asirgarh (AD 1603) were also conquered.
  • Buland Darwaza was constructed at Fatehpur Sikri after victory over Gujarat in AD 1572.
  • Married to Harkha Bai, daughter of Rajput ruler Bharmal
  • Ralph Fitch (in AD 1585) was the first Englishman to visit Akbar's court.
  • Abolished Jaziyah (AD 1564); believed in Sulh-i-Kul (peace to all), built Ibadat Khana (Hall of prayer) at Fatehpur Sikri; issued 'Degree of Infallibility (AD 1579); formulated religious order Din-i-Ilahi (AD 1582). Birbal was the first to embrace it.
  • Land revenue system was called Todar Mal Bandobast or Zabti System measurement of land, classification of land and fixation of rent; and introduced Mansabdari System (holder of rank) to organise nobility and army.
  • The Navratnas included Todar Mal, Abul Fazal, Faizi, Birbal, Tansen, Abdur Rahim Khana-i-Khana, Mullah-do-Pyaza, Raja Man Singh and Fakir Aziao-Din.

Jahangir (AD 1605-1627)

  • Executed the fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjan Dev.
  • Greatest failure was loss of Kandahar to Persia in AD 1622.
  • Married Mehr-un-Nisa in AD 1611 and conferred the title of Nurjahan on her; He established Zanjir-i-Adal at Agra Fort for the seekers of royal justice.
  • Captain Hawkin and Sir Thomas Roe visited his court.
  • Famous painters in his court-Abdul Hassan, Ustad Mansur and Bishandas.

Shahjahan (AD 1628-1658)

  • Annexed Ahmadnagar while Bijapur and Golconda accepted his overlord-ship.
  • Secured Kandahar (AD 1639).
  • Two Frenchmen, Bernier and Tavernier and an Italian adventurer Manucci visited his court.
  • Built Moti Masjid and Taj Mahal at Agra, Jama Masjid and Red Fort at Delhi. His reign is considered the Golden Age of the Mughal architecture.

Aurangzeb (Alamgir) (AD 1658-1707)

  • Aurangzeb became victorious after the brutal war of succession among his brother Dara, Shuja and Murad.
  • Rebellions his during rule-Jat Peasantry at Mathura, Satnami peasantry in Punjab and Bundelas in Bundelkhand.
  • The annexation of Marwar in AD 1658 led to a serious rift between Rajput and Mughals after the death of Raja Jaswant Singh.
  • Ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur was executed by him in AD 1675."
  • Mughal conquests reached territorial climax during his reign.
  • It stretched from Kashmir in North to Jinji in South, from the Hindukush in West to Chittagong in East.
  • He was called Darvesh or a Zinda Pir. He forbade Sati. Conquered Bijapur (AD 1686) and Golconda (AD 1687) and reimposed Jaziva in AD 1679.
  • He built Biwi ka Makbara on the tomb of his queen Rabaud-Durani at Aurangabad; Moti Masjid within Red Fort, Delhi; and the Jami or Badshahi Mosque at Lahore.
Causes behind the fall of Mughal Empire

  • Weak and incompetent successors
  • Wars of succession
  • Aurangzeb's Deccan, religious and Rajput policies
  • Jagirdari crisis
  • Growth of Marathas and other regional powers
  • Foreign invasions of Nadir Shah (1739) and Abdali

Sur Dynasty

  • The founder of Sur dynasty was Farid.
  • Afghan ruler of Bihar, Bahar Khan Lohani gave the title of Sher Shah to Farid. Introduced Silver coin called Rupaya and Copper coin Dam.
  • Built his tomb at Sasaram and built a new city on the bank of Yamuna river in Delhi (present day Purana Qila).

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