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general knowledge 2023 arihant | Indian History | Medieval India | Provincial Kingdoms

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general knowledge 2023 arihant | Indian History | Medieval India | Provincial Kingdoms



INDIAN HISTORY


MEDIEVAL INDIA



PROVINCIAL KINGDOMS

Gujarat

  • Broke away from Delhi in AD 1397 under Zafar Khan, who assumed the title of Sultan Muzaffar Shah.
  • His grandson Ahmed Shah I built a new city Ahmedabad.
  • The next prominent ruler was Mahmud Beghra. During his rule, the Portuguese set-up a factory at Diu.

Kashmir

Kashmir was ruled by Hindu rulers until Shamsuddin Shah asserted himself in AD 1339. The greatest ruler was Zain-ul-Abidin (AD 1420-70), who is called the Akbar of Kashmir, built Zaina lank, artificial island in Wular lake.

Mewar

  • Rajput rule restored by Rana Hamir after Alauddin Khilji captured Chittor in AD 1303.
  • The greatest was Rana Kumbha who built the Vijay Stambh at Chittor to commemorate his victory over Mahmud Khalji of Malwa.

Vijayanagara Kingdom (AD 1336-1565)

  • Founded by Harihara I and Bukka I.
  • Four dynasties ruled over VijayanagarSangam, Saluva, Tuluva and Aravidu.
  • Devaraya I built dam across Tungabhadra river and Italian traveller Nicolo de Conti visited his court followed by the Russian merchant Nikitin.
  • Devaraya II, the greatest ruler, who was seen as incarnation of Indra by Commoners; He was also called Gajabetekara' and wrote Mahanataka Sudhanidhi and commentary on the Brahma Sutras in Sanskrit: Persian Ambassador Abdur Razzaq visited his court. Krishnadeva Raya (AD 1509-29) was the greatest ruler.
  • Krishnadeva Raya was known as Abhinava Bhoja, Andhra Pitamah and Andhra Bhoja because of being a great patron of literature. Eight great poets of Telugu (Ashta Diggaja) adorned his court like Pedanna and Tenalirama.
  • Portuguese Dominigo Paes and Barbosa visited his court.
  • Battle of Talikota (AD 1565) Sadasiva, the last ruler of the Tuluva dynasty was defeated by an alliance of Ahmadnagar, Bijapur, Golconda and Bidar.

Bahmani Kingdom

  • Alauddin Hasan Bahman Shah (AD 1347-58), also known as Hasan Gangu, founded it with capital at Gulbarg.
  • Ahmad Shah Wali transferred the capital from Gulbarg to Bidar.
  • Bahmani kingdom broke up into :

1. Nizamsahis of Ahmadnagar
Founder Malik Ahmad Bahri

2. Adilsahis of Bijapur
Founder Yusuf Adil Shah

3. Imadsahis of Berar
Founder Fatullah Khan Imad-ul-Mulk .

4. Qutubsahis of Golconda
Founder Quli Qutub Shah

5. Baridsahis of Bidar
Founder Ali Barid

  • The Gol Gumbaz (a tomb with World's second largest dome) was built by Muhammad Adil Shah at Bijapur.
  • Muhammad Quli Qutubshah founded He derabad and built Charminar.

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