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general knowledge 2023 arihant | Indian History | Modern India | The Revolt of 1857

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general knowledge 2023 arihant | Indian History | Modern India | The Revolt of 1857

Indian History

Modern India


  • Started at Meerut on 10th May, 1857.
  • Political Causes The policy of Doctrine of Lapse.
  • Economic Causes Heavy taxation, evictions, Discriminatory Tariff Policy against Indian products and destruction of traditional handicrafts that hit peasants, artisans and small zamindars.
  • Military Discrimination as Indian soldiers were paid low salaries, they could not rise above the rank of subedar and were racially insulted.
  • Grievances of Sepoys The introduction of Enfield rifle, and its cartridge of which was greased with animal fat, provided the spark.
  • A rebellion broke out among Sepoys of Meerut on 10th May, 1857 which later spread to other parts of the country.
  • British social reforms (widow remarriage, abolition of sati, education for girls, Christian missionaries).

Centres of Revolt and the Leaders

Centres of Revolt Leader British Suppressor
Delhi Bahadur Shah II, Bakht Khan John Nicholson Hudson
Banaras Liaquat Ali James Neill
Kanpur Nana Saheb, Tantia Tope, Azimullah Khan Campbell, Havelock
Lucknow Hazrat Mahal (Begum of Awadh) Havelock, James Neill, Campbell
Jhansi Rani Laxmi Bai Sir Hugh Rose
Bareilly Khan Bahadur Khan Sir Colin Campbell
Awadh (Bihar) Veer Kunwar Singh William Taylor and Vincent Eyer

Causes of Failure

  • The Nizam of Hyderabad, the Raja of Jodhpur, Scindia of Gwalior, the Holkar of Indore, the rulers of Patiala, Sindh and Kashmir and the Rana of Nepal provided active support to the British.
  • Comparative lack of efficient leadership.

Impact of the Revolt

  • The control of Indian administration was passed on to the British Crown by the Government of India Act, 1858.
  • Reorganisation of the army.
  • After the revolt, the British pursued the Policy of Divide and Rule.

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